Ancient Egypt

There is no period in the known history which inspired the mind more than the culture of the ancient egyp- teans. Beginning from the early middleages (where ground parts of mummies were used as components for alchemy or medicine) until even today, Egypt has often been the inspiration of books, movies (“The Mummy” 1999 and “The Mummy Returns” 2001), music, and art.

The ancient egyptean history constitutes an awesome period of time, if we bring Egyptian history down to the last hieroglyphic inscription, it lasted almost 3500 years (3100 BC – 394 AD). Only China, with a continuous history since the Shang (c. 1500 BC), has been able to equal this.

Most of our knowledge comes from two egyptean sources, the monumental inscriptions, which only become common in the New Kingdom (there are really none, for instance, from the III or IV Dynasties), and the king lists like the “Turin Canon” hieratic papyrus (which dates from the time of Ramesses II).

Sadly most of the original sources (regarding the king lists) do not exist anymore, and we are dependent on fragments that were written much later. But each of these introduced errors into the text, apart from the kind of errors that creep into any Mediaeval manuscripts that must be periodically recopied, and sometimes they even contradict each other.

Royal seals

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