The Kingdom of Burgundy, a feature of the area south of the Rhine and of the Rhône-Saône valley since the 5th century, when the Burgundians settled there, regained its independence with the breakup of the Carolingian Empire and remained so until the 11th century. Sadly the history of the Kingdom is mostly during an obscure period and its Kings were not able to of protect it from the raids of Vikings from the North, Arabs from the South, and even Magyars from the East. Luxeuil, in the far north of the Kingdom, was actually sacked by both Vikings coming up the Seine and Arabs coming up the Rhône.
The story of the independence and unification of the Kingdom of Burgundy could be called at least complicated. The Duchy of Burgundy had been detached, as part of the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. The Lower Kingdom (or Provence) broke away with Boso, a son-in-law of the Emperor Louis II, in 879. But he had trouble maintaining his position, and was not effectively in power. His son Louis was not able to secure the Kingdom until 890. He later lost the throne of Italy to Berengar I (a grandson of Louis the Pious), who also blinded him. He was unable to pass the throne to his son; and Lower Burgundy passed to a cousin, Hugh of Arles (928). Meanwhile, Rudolf II of Upper Burgundy had entered Italy himself and overthrown Berengar (922), and Hugh made his own claim there too (926).
As the conflict between Rudolf and Hugh was ended (933), Hugh kept Italy, Rudolf got Lower Burgundy, and Hugh’s son married Rudolf’s daughter. Ruldolf, however, seems to have been slow to exert authority over Lower Burgundy, where Hugh’s brother Boso ruled as Count of Arles. After Hugh’s death, however, Rudolf’s son, Conrad, reunited the Kingdom. Hugh’s son, King Lothar II of Italy, was later overthrown by Berengar II, who tried to force the widowed Queen, Adelaide, into marrying him.
To prevent this the German King Otto I intervened, married the Queen himself, and was crowned Emperor by the Pope. They became the ancestors of all the German Emperors until Conrad IV.
Burgundy lost its independence just because the Kings died out. Rudolf III’s heir became his niece, who had married the Emperor Conrad II, who was himself a descendant of Adelaide and Otto I.
The feudal fragmentation of the Kingdom began to erase its identity, and when parts of it began to be acquired by Aragon and then France, the process started whereby most of it would end up French. The House of Savoy, indeed, ended up with the throne of Italy, but Savoy itself was then lost to France. Only Switzerland and Monaco are today left of what had been the Kingdom of Burgundy.
Kings of Burgundy
Rudolf I 888-912
Louis III 887-928
Rudolf II 912-937
Hugh of Arles 926-947
Conrad the Peaceful 937-993
Rudolf III 993-1032
Burgundy inherited by Conrad II